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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 386-392

Epidemiological and clinico-radiological evaluation of head injury in pediatric population


1 Department of NeuroSurgery, Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221005, India
2 Department of NeuroSurgery, Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Medical Sciences and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi 110001, India; Previously at: Department of NeuroSurgery, Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh -221005, India
3 Department of NeuroSurgery, Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Medical Sciences and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi 110001, India
4 Department of Community Medicine, Division of Biostatistics, Dr. Baba Sahib Ambedkar Medical College, Delhi 110085, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sharad Pandey
Department of Neuro Surgery, Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Medical Sciences and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi 110001.
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JPN.JPN_44_19

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Background: Head injury in infancy and childhood has been documented as the single most common cause of death. In India, children aged <15 years constitute 35% of the total population and contribute to 20–30% of all head injuries. In this study, we attempted to analyze the epidemiological factors, management, and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The objective of this study were to find the causes of head injury in children and its pattern of distribution in this population and to analyze the efforts required to prevent the injury and management focusing on limiting the progression of primary brain injury and minimizing secondary brain insult. Results: A total of 2714 patients with head injury were admitted at our hospital during the study period and, out of them, 508 (18.17%) were pediatric patients with age less than 18 years. Of the 508 patients, only 497 patients were included in this study. In the present study, 357 (71.83%) were males and 140 (28.16%) were females. In total, 351 cases were managed conservatively whereas surgical intervention was conducted in 146 cases (P < 0.001). In this study, the most common mode of injury was a road traffic accident (RTA) (46.88%; n=233), followed by fall from height (34.8%; n=173) (P < 0.001). It was also seen that epidural hematoma and fracture hematoma were the most common computed tomography findings in pediatric patients with head injury followed by parenchymal contusion or contusion with or without fracture followed by diffuse axonal injury. A total of 344 cases out of 497 cases were discharged with Glasgow outcome score (GOS)-5 whereas nine cases remained in a persistent vegetative state (GOS-2). Conclusion: Early intervention aimed at the primary lesion in TBI in children generally carries a good outcome, and limits as much as possible the ongoing biomechanical, physiological, and pathological sequelae post-TBI. In teenagers, the importance of proper self-care along with adequate safety gears while doing any TBI-prone activity should be emphasized.






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