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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 57-59

An unusual presentation of Menkes disease masquerading as a leukodystrophy with macrocephaly

Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Kalawati Saran Children’s Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Suvasini Sharma
Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Kalawati Saran Children’s Hospital, New Delhi 110001.
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jpn.JPN_141_18

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Background: Menkes disease is an X-linked neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation in ATP7A gene, which codes for copper-transporting ATPase. It usually presents in early infancy with neuro-regression, hypotonia, seizures, and kinky hair. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain shows cerebral atrophy, subdural effusions, and tortuous cerebral blood vessels. Case Characteristics: We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who presented with global developmental delay, seizures, and increasing head size since 2 months of age and history of sibling death. He had macrocephaly, sparse, hypopigmented hair, seborrheic dermatitis of scalp, hypotonia, and brisk reflexes. Brain MRI was suggestive of megalencephalic leukodystrophy. Careful reexamination of films revealed tortuous blood vessels. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly reduced, leading to diagnosis of Menkes disease. Conclusion: This case exemplifies a rare presentation of Menkes disease, simulating a leukodystrophy with macrocephaly. Tortuosity of cerebral blood vessels is an important finding, which can help in differentiating Menkes disease from white matter disorders.


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