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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 227-234

Pattern, etiological factors and determinants of mortality among sick newborns with seizures in Ilesa, Nigeria

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Bankole Peter Kuti
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.165663

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Background: Neonatal seizures contribute significantly to newborn morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries including Nigeria. Unfortunately the countries with high incidence of neonatal seizures often lack the facilities to adequately diagnose, monitor and prognosticate the condition. Objective: We set out to determine the factors at presentation that predict death among babies admitted with clinically identifiable seizures. Methods: We prospectively observed consecutive neonatal admissions over a nine month period at the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria. Babies with seizures were identified based on clinical observation. Perinatal history, examination and laboratory findings were compared between babies with seizures who survived and those that died. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of mortality. Results: Over a nine month study period, a total of 340 babies were recruited out of which 55 (16.7 percent) had clinically identifiable seizures. Fifteen (27.3 percent) of the 55 babies with clinically identifiable seizures died; while 20 (7.0 percent) of the 285 babies without seizures died. Clinically identifiable neonatal seizures contributed to 42.9 percent of the overall mortality in the neonatal unit during the study period. The risk factors for mortality among the babies with seizures were clinical seizures in the first 24 hours of life, birth asphyxia co-existing with hyponatraemia and presence of cerebral oedema (P < 0.05). The independent determinant of mortality among babies with clinical seizures was cerebral oedema (OR = 4.025; 95% CI 1.342-26.956; P = 0.019). Conclusion: We conclude that clinically identifiable neonatal seizures contribute significantly to neonatal mortality and presentation within 24 hours of delivery, birth asphyxia and cerebral oedema increased the risk of death in babies with seizures.


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