Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
LETTER TO EDITOR
Year
: 2018  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 128--129

Discontiguous epidural lesions in a much transfused patient


Dhruv K Agarwal1, Sugat Sanyal2, Eswararao Thamatapu1, Prasad Krishnan1,  
1 Department of Neurosurgery, National Neurosciences Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Pathology, Peerless Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Prasad Krishnan
Department of Neurosurgery, Room No. 219, 2nd Floor, National Neurosciences Centre, Peerless Hospital Campus, 360 Panchasayar, Garia, Kolkata, West Bengal 700094
India




How to cite this article:
Agarwal DK, Sanyal S, Thamatapu E, Krishnan P. Discontiguous epidural lesions in a much transfused patient.J Pediatr Neurosci 2018;13:128-129


How to cite this URL:
Agarwal DK, Sanyal S, Thamatapu E, Krishnan P. Discontiguous epidural lesions in a much transfused patient. J Pediatr Neurosci [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Dec 9 ];13:128-129
Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2018/13/1/128/232436


Full Text



Sir,

An 18-year-old male patient presented with mild weakness of bilateral lower limbs and walking difficulty for 1-month duration. He was previously diagnosed to be afflicted by beta thalassemia and had a history of multiple blood transfusions. On examination, he was found to be mildly icteric, had hepatosplenomegaly, and had a hemoglobin level of 4.5 g%. His total counts were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine showed discontiguous epidural mass isointense (to the spinal cord) on both T1 and T2 sequences, causing thecal sac and cord compression at cervical, dorsal, and lumbar levels without any vertebral destruction [Figure 1]. In addition, there was extensive paraspinal soft tissue along the thoracic spine with destruction of rib heads as well as a posterior mediastinal mass encasing the aorta [Figure 2]. Computed tomography (CT)-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the paravertebral mass showed picture-like bone marrow with reversal of myeloid–erythroid ratio with preponderance of erythroid precursors on May–Grünwald–Giemsa staining [Figure 2]. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was diagnosed. He was transfused with four units of blood following which his power improved.{Figure 1}, {Figure 2}

Extramedullary hematopoiesis in adults is a compensatory response[1],[2] resulting from failure of adequate production of myeloid precursors in the bone marrow and is commonly found in hemoglobinopathies and myeloproliferative disorders.[2],[3] It commonly occurs in the liver, spleen, thorax, and lymph nodes.[2],[3] Epidural involvement (as seen in this case) may be due to either extension from paraspinal tissues[2] or following stimulation of epidural embryonic cell rests or extension from vertebral marrow.[2]

Possible treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hypertransfusion[1],[2],[3] (as the lesions diminish or even disappear on when the patient receives blood). The last alternative is suitable in patients like ours with discontiguous, multiple lesions and minimal deficits.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1Sodani A, Chawla A, Maheshwari A, Naigaonkar M, Porwal V. Paraplegia treated with blood transfusion. Neurol India 2012;13:328-31.
2Hashmi MA, Guha S, Sengupta P, Basu D, Baboo S, Neha. Thoracic cord compression by extramedullary hematopoiesis in thalassemia. Asian J Neurosurg 2014;13:102-4.
3Garg K, Singh PK, Singh M, Chandra PS, Sharma BS. Long segment spinal epidural extramedullary hematopoiesis. Surg Neurol Int 2013;13:161.