<%server.execute "isdev.asp"%> Primary intracranial extraosseous CNS Ewing’s sarcoma: A distinct entity Agarwal P, Bhardwaj M, Choudhary A - J Pediatr Neurosci
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LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 396-398
 

Primary intracranial extraosseous CNS Ewing’s sarcoma: A distinct entity


1 Department of Pathology, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, PGIMER, Dr. RML Hospital, New Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication26-Mar-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Poojan Agarwal
House No. 249-E, Behind Police Station, Nawada Bazar, New Delhi - 110 043
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JPN.JPN_9_17

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How to cite this article:
Agarwal P, Bhardwaj M, Choudhary A. Primary intracranial extraosseous CNS Ewing’s sarcoma: A distinct entity. J Pediatr Neurosci 2017;12:396-8

How to cite this URL:
Agarwal P, Bhardwaj M, Choudhary A. Primary intracranial extraosseous CNS Ewing’s sarcoma: A distinct entity. J Pediatr Neurosci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2020 Feb 26];12:396-8. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2017/12/4/396/227989


Dear Sir,

Ewing's sarcoma (EWS)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is an aggressive malignant small round blue cell neoplasm that frequently manifests in the second decade of life, accounting for 4% of childhood and adolescent Ewing’s sarcoma (EWS)/peripheral primitive malignancies.[1] Primary extraosseous EWS of the centra neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is an aggressivel nervous system (CNS-EES) is an extremely uncommon malignant small round blue cell neoplasm that entity with only a handful of cases reported till date.frequently manifests in the second decade of life, CNS-EES is histologically similar to central PNET (cPNETs), however, differs in histogenesis, molecular characteristics, and clinical behavior.[2],[3]

We discuss case of an 18-year-old boy who presented with complaint of gradually increasing head size for 5 months along with persistent headache. On examination, the patients’ vitals were stable and his Glasgow Coma Scale was 15 (E4V5M6). There was no sensory neural or motor deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 10 cm × 6.7 cm × 6.5 cm bilobed heterogeneously enhancing mass lesion in the right parietal region [Figure 1]a. The lesion was extradural but intracranial and eroding the overlying calvarial bone. The mass was variegated in appearance with heterogenous signal intensity. Peroperatively, bicoronal, midsagittal, and lambdoid incisions were made with gross total decompression of tumor and artificial cranioplasty. A clear plane could be achieved between the tumor and brain parenchyma. The gross specimen in histopathology laboratory was received in multiple fragments measuring 2 cm to 9 cm in maximum dimension. The tumor fragments had a glistening outer surface and grayish-brown firm to soft cut surface [Figure 1]b. Microscopy revealed a cellular tumor comprising sheets of monotonous small round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm [Figure 1]c and d. No rosettes were seen. Entrapped bony trabaculae noted. Many thin walled vascular channels were seen traversing through the tumor, of which, an occasional vessel showed tumor emboli. Large areas of necrosis were evident. Cells were positive for intracytoplasmic glycogen on periodic acid-Schiff stain and showed strong membranous positivity for product of MIC-2 antigen, CD99. Interphase FISH revealed ESWR1 gene rearrangement [Figure 1]e. A final diagnosis of CNS-EES was given. On metastatic workup, CT Scans of the thorax, abdomen, and a technetium bone scan were negative for tumor. The patient received 2 weeks of chemotherapy including vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide. He was stable for initial 2 weeks but subsequently developed fever and signs of sepsis and eventually succumbed to his illness.
Figure 1: (a) Magnetic resonance imaging: Bilobed intracranial extradural heterogeneously enhancing mass lesion in right parietal region (b) Gross: Soft gray-brown with areas of hemorrhage. External surface; glistening encapsulated (inset) (c) Small round cell sheets with intervening vascular channels (H and E, ×100) (d) Monotonous tumor cells with indistinct cytoplasm, vesicular nuclei, and clumped chromatin (H and E, ×400). Focal intracytoplasmic glycogen (PAS stain) (e) Interphase FISH with the ESWR1 (22q12) break-apart probe. Fused red/green signal indicate ESWR1 gene rearrangement. CD99 immunostain positive (inset)

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CNS-EES shows CD99 expression and EWS/FLI1 translocation, which is specific and sensitive marker for diagnosing EWS family of tumors. These markers are often not found in cases of cPNET.[1] Minimally invasive techniques such as fine needle aspiration as well as onsite squash smear preparation and assessment have limited roles in this diagnosis as the morphological overlap exists between CNS-EES and c-PNET. However, the cytology smears can be triaged for ancillary FISH testing later on.[4] The prognosis of CNS-EES is favorable, and management is similar to EES elsewhere in the body and includes treatment comprising surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Patients with c-PNET require more aggressive therapy and wider surgical resection and have a relatively dismal prognosis when compared to patients of CNS-EES; however, there are limited cases reported in the literature of this entity.[1],[5] Dedeurwaerdere et al.[3] in their series discussed five patients, of which follow-up was available in four. Only one of these patients died 10 years after the first diagnosis while all others showed no evidence of disease posttherapy. Sato et al. reported a young adult who was managed postoperatively by whole cranial irradiation and chemotherapy. Their patient was disease-free after 1 year of follow-up.[6]

Primary intracranial EWS is a rare entity and is essential to diagnose because of a better outcome. Immunophenotypical as well as genetic analysis plays a key role in the diagnosis and the distinction from central PNET.

Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge the aid of technical staff at pathology laboratory as well as in the operation theater who made working on every single patient possible.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Pekala JS, Gururangan S, Provenzale JM, Mukundan S Jr. Central nervous system extraosseous Ewing sarcoma: Radiologic manifestations of this newly defined pathologic entity. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2006;27:580-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Kazmi SA, Perry A, Pressey JG, Wellons JC, Hammers Y, Palmer CA. Primary Ewing sarcoma of the brain: A case report and literature review. Diagn Mol Pathol 2007;16: 108-11.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Dedeurwaerdere F, Giannini C, Sciot R, Rubin BP, Perilongo G, Borghi L, et al. Primary peripheral PNET/Ewing’s sarcoma of the dura: A clinicopathologic entity distinct from central PNET. Mod Pathol 2002;15:673-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Roh MH. Triage of cytologic direct smears for ancillary studies: A case-based illustration and review. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2013;137:1185-90.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.
Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK, editors. WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System. Lyon: IARC; 2007.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Sato S, Mitsuyama T, Ishii A, Kawakami M, Kawamata T. Multiple primary cranial Ewing’s sarcoma in adulthood: Case report. Neurosurgery 2009;64:E384-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
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