<%server.execute "isdev.asp"%> Febrile seizures in 1–5 aged infants in tropical practice: Frequency, etiology and outcome of hospitalization Al-Mendalawi MD - J Pediatr Neurosci
home : about us : ahead of print : current issue : archives search instructions : subscriptionLogin 
Users online: 1313      Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this page Email this page


 
  Table of Contents    
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 417-418
 

Febrile seizures in 1–5 aged infants in tropical practice: Frequency, etiology and outcome of hospitalization


Department of Paediatrics, Al-Kindy College of Medicine, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Web Publication20-Jan-2016

Correspondence Address:
Mahmood Dhahir Al-Mendalawi
P.O. Box 55302, Baghdad Post Office, Baghdad
Iraq
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.174446

Rights and Permissions

 



How to cite this article:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Febrile seizures in 1–5 aged infants in tropical practice: Frequency, etiology and outcome of hospitalization. J Pediatr Neurosci 2015;10:417-8

How to cite this URL:
Al-Mendalawi MD. Febrile seizures in 1–5 aged infants in tropical practice: Frequency, etiology and outcome of hospitalization. J Pediatr Neurosci [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Oct 17];10:417-8. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2015/10/4/417/174446


Dear Sir,

Assogba et al. mentioned that the etiologies of febrile seizures (FS) in their studied cohort included in a descending order of frequency the following: Falciparum malaria (FM) infection (52.3%), bacterial meningitis (14.9%), respiratory tract infection (10.4%), digestive tract (7.8%), isolated high pyretic (5.5%), measles (3.2%), urinate tract (2.6%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1.6%), and none determined (1.6%).[1] I presume that HIV infection as an etiology for FS (1.6%) was greatly underestimated compared to FM infection (52.3%). This is based on the following three points.

First, though no studies are yet present considering the exact prevalence of pediatric HIV infection in Togo, the available data pointed out to the alarmingly high prevalence of HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Many reasons could explain why the spread of HIV in SSA has not been declining over the years. These were found to include “poverty, famine, low status of women in society, corruption, naive risk taking perception, resistance to sexual behavior change, high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections, internal conflicts and refugee status, antiquated beliefs, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance of individual's HIV status, child and adult prostitution, uncertainty of safety of blood intended for transfusion, widow inheritance, circumcision, illiteracy, and female genital cutting and polygamy.”[2]

Second, Assogba et al.[1] didn't mention in the methodology the protocol of diagnosing HIV infection in their studied cohort. However, I presume that they employed serologic HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). It is obvious that there are many RDT in the routine clinical work with variations in their sensitivity and specificity. Interestingly, a recent evaluation of nine RDT, in Lomé, Togo has shown that the “sensitivity and specificity observed for seven tests were ≥ 99% and ≥ 98%, respectively:First response HIV 1–2-O PMC Medical, India, GENIE Fast HIV 1–2 and Genie™ III HIV (1/2) Bio-Rad, France, HIV TRI-DOT + Ag; J. Mitra, India; SD Bioline HIV (1/2) 3.0 and SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis DUO Standard Diagnostic, Korea; and VIKIA HIV (1/2); BioMérieux, France. Two tests had performances inferior to WHO recommendations: INSTI HIV1/2 Biolytical Canada; sensitivity = 97.8% and Hexagon HIV Human GmbH Germany; specificity = 94.8%.”[3]

Third, the distributions of malaria and HIV is widely overlapped in SSA. There is an interesting interaction between HIV infection and malaria. On one hand, “HIV-related immunosuppression is correlated with increased malaria infection, burden, and treatment failure, and with complicated malaria, irrespective of immune status.”[4] On the other hand, “the effect of malaria on HIV-infected individuals has also been explored, with the parasitic infection increasing the risk of HIV disease progression and mother-to-child transmission of HIV.”[5]

Finally, despite the aforementioned remarks, I presume that the campaigns for “roll back malaria” should run in parallel with HIV prevention programs to cut short the evolution of new cases of malaria and HIV infection and ultimately their neurological complications.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Assogba K, Balaka B, Touglo FA, Apetsè KM, Kombaté D. Febrile seizures in one-five aged infants in tropical practice: Frequency, etiology and outcome of hospitalization. J Pediatr Neurosci 2015;10:9-12.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
2.
Nyindo M. Complementary factors contributing to the rapid spread of HIV-I in sub-Saharan Africa: A review. East Afr Med J 2005;82:40-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Dagnra AY, Dossim S, Salou M, Nyasenu T, Ali-Edje K, Ouro-Médeli A, et al. Evaluation of 9 rapid diagnostic tests for screening HIV infection, in Lomé, Togo. Med Mal Infect 2014;44:525-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Van Geertruyden JP. Interactions between malaria and human immunodeficiency virus anno 2014. Clin Microbiol Infect 2014;20:278-85.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
González R, Ataíde R, Naniche D, Menéndez C, Mayor A. HIV and malaria interactions: Where do we stand? Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2012;10:153-65.  Back to cited text no. 5
    




 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
 
 
  Search
 
  
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Article in PDF (266 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1126    
    Printed8    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded82    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal