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CASE REPORT
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 122-123
 

Unusual complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery


1 Department of Surgery, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, India
2 Department of Pathology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, India

Date of Web Publication29-Oct-2009

Correspondence Address:
Tarun Agarwal
Department of Surgery, Subharti Medical College, Delhi - Haridwar Bypass Road, Meerut
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.57340

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   Abstract 

Ventricular shunts are commonly employed in the management of hydrocephalus, and numerous complications such as dissection or migration have been reported in the literature besides shunt malfunction. We present a case of the migration of the peritoneal catheter into the scrotum who attended at our institute. He was managed successfully, but subsequently developed intraabdominal cystic swelling for which he was reoperated.


Keywords: Patent processus vaginalis, shunt complication, shunt migration, ventriculoperitoneal shunt


How to cite this article:
Agarwal T, Pandey S, Niranjan A, Jain V, Mishra S, Agarwal V. Unusual complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. J Pediatr Neurosci 2009;4:122-3

How to cite this URL:
Agarwal T, Pandey S, Niranjan A, Jain V, Mishra S, Agarwal V. Unusual complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. J Pediatr Neurosci [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Apr 19];4:122-3. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2009/4/2/122/57340



   Introduction Top


A number of complications may occur after ventriculo peritoneal shunt insertion for management of hydrocephalus. These include infection, blockage, malfunction or migration of the shunt. Migration may occur into the lateral ventricle, mediastinum, chest, gastrointestinal tract, abdominal wall, bladder, vagina, and scrotum. [1],[2],[6],[7],[8],[10],[12],[14] We present a case which presented various complications at intervals during the whole course.


   Case Report Top


A 14-month-old boy presented with erythema along the tract of his ventriculoperitoneal. shunt 6 months after its insertion. It was not associated with any shunt malfunction. The patient was given antibiotics and he responded. Three months later, he presented with recurrent vomiting and signs of lower end of shunt obstruction. Revision of shunt was done. Seven months later, the patient presented with right-sided scrotal swelling with some hard tube-like structure within. Cough impulse was present. An X-ray of the abdomen was done which showed the coiled end of shunt in the scrotum [Figure 1]. The patient was operated, and a reduction in the hernial sac containing a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with herniotomy was done. Six months later, the patient presented with pain in the abdomen, lump in the abdomen around umbilicus for six months. Exploratory laparotomy with decompression of the pseudocyst around the peritoneal end of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a repositioning of peritoneal catheter was done. Presently, the patient is asymptomatic and still in follow-up.


   Discussion Top


There are many complications listed which may be seen after v-p shunt insertion. [3],[4],[9],[13] Most of these patients present with abdominal signs and/or intracranial sepsis. [9] Inguinal hernia and/or hydrocele may follow the insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a frequency ranging from a minimum of 3.8% to a maximum of 16.8%. [4],[13] Grosfeld was the first to report this. [8] The complication may occur at a variable length of time after operation (from 1 day to 1 year). [2] Yamasaki et al. reported two cases of spontaneous dissection of a Raimondi catheter among 23 cases, and several similar cases were reported. [1],[12],[13],[6],[5] Oktem et al. [10] have reported migration of the peritoneal catheter into the scrotum through the unobliterated processus vaginalis; however, the tube was not dissected in all of those cases. Peritoneal CSF pseudocysts are an infrequent but important complication in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Their incidence is regarded as ranging between 1 and 4.5%. [4],[11] In our case, we encountered multiple complications, at intervals, i.e., shunt infection followed by transcrotal migration and finally peritoneal CSF pseudocysts formation.


   Acknowledgment Top


I am extremely grateful to the Medical Superintendent of the Subharthi Medical College Hospital for permitting me to report this case.

 
   References Top

1.Bristow DL, Buntain W, James HL. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt migration causing an acute scrotum: A case report of Doppler evaluation. J Pediatric Surg 1978; 13:538-9.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Clarnette TD, Lam Sk, Hutson JM. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts in children reveal the natural history of closure of the processus vaginalis. J Pediatr Surg 1998;33:413-6.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Danismend N, Kuday C. Unusual complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Neurosurgery 1987; 22:798.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Di Rocco C, Iannelli A. Complications of CSF shunting. In: Di Rocco C, editor. The treatment of Infantile Hydrocephalus. Vol. 2. Boca Raton, Fl: CRC Press; 1987. p. 79-153.  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Fukamachi A, Wada H, Toyoda O, Wakao T, Kawafuchi J. Migration or extrusion of shunt catheters. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1982; 64:159-66.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Fuwa I, Yasuhiko M, Yoichi I, Yokota A. Migration of a dissected peritoneal shunt catheter into the scrotum. Brain Dev 1984;6:336-8.  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Gocer AI, Bagdatoglu H, Cetinalp E, Uzuneyupoglu E, Karadayi A. An unusual complication of the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt: Migration of the distal end into the scrotum through the inguinal canal. Turk Neurosurg 1990; 1:176-77.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Grosfeld JL, Cooney DR, Inguinal hernia following ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus. J Pediatr Surg 1974; 9:311-5.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Grosfeld JL, Cooney DR, Smith J, Cambell RL. Intra-abdominal complications following ventriculo-peritoneal shunt procedures. Pediatrics 1974; 4:791-6.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Oktem IS, Akdemir H, Koc K, Menku A, Tucer B, Selcuku A, et al. Migration of abdominal catheter of ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the scrotum. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1998; 140:167-70.  Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Rainov N, Schobess A, Heidecke V, Buckert W. Abdominal CSF pseudocysts in patients with ventriculo-peritoneal shunts. Report of fourteen cases and review of the literature. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 1994; 127:73-8.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Ramani PS. Extrusion of abdominal catheter of ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the scrotum. Case report. J Neurosurg 1974; 40:772-3.  Back to cited text no. 12      
13.Redman JF, Seibert JJ. Abdominal and genitourinary complications following ventriculoperitoneal shunts. J Urol 1977; 119:295-7.  Back to cited text no. 13      
14.Selcuklu A, Pasaoglu A, Akdemir H, Kurtsoy a, Kavuncu I. Migration of the peritoneal catheter of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the scrotum. Turk Neurosurg 1991; 2:52-3.  Back to cited text no. 14      


    Figures

  [Figure 1]


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    Abstract
    Introduction
    Case Report
    Discussion
    Acknowledgment
    References
    Article Figures

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