home : about us : ahead of print : current issue : archives search instructions : subscriptionLogin 
Users online: 61      Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Print this page Email this page


 
NEUROIMAGING
Year : 2009  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 113-116
 

Role of biplane digital subtraction angiography, and 3D rotational angiography in craniopagus twins: A case report, detailed pictorial evaluation, and review of literature


Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai - 600 116, India

Date of Web Publication29-Oct-2009

Correspondence Address:
Lakshmi Sudha
Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai - 600 116
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.57330

Rights and Permissions

 

   Abstract 

Cranially conjoined twins (craniopagus) are regarded as one of the rarest human malformations. Craniopagus represents 2 to 6% of conjoined twins and is the rarest type of disorder. A conventional angiogram with three dimensions is needed to confirm the exact extent of sharing of the arterial / venous tree. 3D angiography was first proposed by CORNELIUS and advanced into clinical practice by VOIGT in 1975. We present a case of craniopagus vertical type II twins, evaluated for cerebral circulation.


Keywords: Craniopagus, digital subtraction angiogram, 3D rotational angiogram


How to cite this article:
Sudha L, Dev B, Kamble R, Joseph S. Role of biplane digital subtraction angiography, and 3D rotational angiography in craniopagus twins: A case report, detailed pictorial evaluation, and review of literature. J Pediatr Neurosci 2009;4:113-6

How to cite this URL:
Sudha L, Dev B, Kamble R, Joseph S. Role of biplane digital subtraction angiography, and 3D rotational angiography in craniopagus twins: A case report, detailed pictorial evaluation, and review of literature. J Pediatr Neurosci [serial online] 2009 [cited 2019 Jul 19];4:113-6. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2009/4/2/113/57330



   Introduction Top


Cranially conjoined twins (craniopagus) are regarded as one of the rarest human malformations. Craniopagus represents 2 to 6% of conjoined twins and is the rarest type of disorder. [1] A conventional angiogram with three dimensions is needed to confirm the exact extent of sharing of the arterial / venous tree. 3D angiography was first proposed by CORNELIUS [2] and advanced into clinical practice by VOIGT in 1975. [2] We present a case of craniopagus vertical type II twins, evaluated for cerebral circulation.


   Case Report Top


TWIN I and TWIN II both female twins aged four (D.O.B - 15/10/2003) were referred to our institution for digital subtraction angiography. 3D angiographic evaluation was done for the craniopagus vertical type II twins, to assess the cerebral vasculature and to identify the different variations in cerebral circulation, which is essential for surgical planning.

An angiogram was performed by selective, individual, as well as simultaneous injections of internal, external, and vertebral arteries of both twins. A 3 D rotational angiogram was also performed, to study the anatomic variations in detail.

Simultaneous and sequential injections of both the twins was performed by positioning TWIN I on the caudal end of the angiography table, head being turned in the right lateral position with nose to right, while TWIN II was positioned on the cranial end of the table with head in Anteroposterior position.

Four-year-old craniopagus twins, both female, were evaluated for their detailed cerebral circulation. The angiographic machine used for the same was Advantax LCN + (GE Biplane system). Retrograde seldingers method, through right femoral puncture of both twins, was used as a technique to study the variations in the arterial and venous cerebral circulation of the craniopagus twins.

TWIN I:

The predominant venous drainage of TWIN I was through the left Transverse-Sigmoid system, draining out through the left internal jugular vein and through the circular sinus into TWIN II's Transverse-Sigmoid Jugular system bilaterally.

The deep venous system was not identified. The arterial as well as the capillary drainage was normal.

TWIN II:

TWIN II had venous drainage through the circular sinus into the Transverse-Sigmoid

Jugular system bilaterally and to the occipital sinus. A significant portion of the venous drainage was shunting into TWIN I's left transverse sinus. The deep venous system was not identified clearly in this twin also.

The external carotid angiogram of TWIN II showed a significant crossover of the external carotid arterial territory, to supply TWIN I's scalp [Figure 1],[Figure 2],[Figure 3],[Figure 4],[Figure 5],[Figure 6],[Figure 7],[Figure 8].


   Discussion Top


Conjoined twins are rare and the estimated prevalence in the literature varies widely from 1:50,000 to 1:200,000. [3] An increased prevalence is observed in parts of Southeast Asia and Africa, with reported occurrence ranging from 1:14,000 to 1:25,000. [4] Forty to 60% of conjoined twins are stillborn and almost 35% of live births do not survive even for 24 hours. [4]

The craniopagus type (joined at the head) is exceedingly rare, with an incidence of one in 2.5 million births. [1] The conjoined twins are monozygotic, monoamniotic, and monochorionic. The chorion differentiates approximately four days after fertilization and the amnion differentiates approximately eight days after fertilization. [5] A conjoined twin occurs as a result of the failure of complete separation (fission) of a single fertilized ovum between 13 and 17 days of gestation. Due to the incomplete division of the embryonic disc of the blastocyst, conjoining occurs in the second week.

The other theory states that the abnormality is due to the result of fusion of two separate embryos, with the junction occurring in the open cranial neuropore before the fourth week after fertilization. [6] Conjoined twins are always genetically identical and share the same sex. Females are more commonly affected, with a male / female ratio of 1:4. [7] These twins can be joined at the vertex, at the side, or at the forehead; the vertical type being the most common. O'Connell's classification denotes three anatomical types for vertical craniopagus, based on relative facial orientation (type 1: face same direction; type 2: face opposite direction (140 - 180 degrees) and type 3: intermediate angle of rotation of the long axis of one head on that of the other). [8],[9] This congenital defect results in an area of absent cranial cutaneous ectoderm (scalp) and ectomeninx of varying severity and extent in the region where the developing telencephalic vesicles meet.

The accurate assessment of cerebral circulation is crucial for surgical planning. Digital Subtracted Angiography (DSA) with Biplane and 3D is very important for the assessment of this complex vasculature.

In our case the predominant venous drainage is through the circular sinus into the Transverse-Sigmoid-Jugular system bilaterally and the occipital sinus, which is demonstrated on the injection of TWIN II. Hyperdynamic circulation is seen in the TWIN II.


   Conclusion Top


Digital subtraction angiogram with biplane and 3D rotation is essential to evaluate the complex vascular anatomy and anatomical variations in such cases, as it gives a complete picture of the entire circulation, which is required to take any further steps in the treatment planning of craniopagus twins.[Table 1]

 
   References Top

1.Hanson JW. Incidence of conjoined twinning. Lancet 1975;2:1257.  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Klucznik RP. Current technology and clinical applications of three-dimensional angiography. Radiol Clin North Am 2002;40:711-28.  Back to cited text no. 2  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
3.Schindler E, Hajek P. Craniopagus twins: Neuroradiological findings (CT, Angiography, MRI). Neuroradiolgy 1988;30:11-6.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Kingston CA, McHugh K, Kumaradevan J, Kiely EM, Spitz L. Imaging in the preoperative assessment of conjoined twins. Radiographics 2001;21:1187-208.   Back to cited text no. 4  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Barth RA, Filly RA, Goldberg JD, Moore P, Silverman NH. Conjoined twins: Prenatal diagnosis and assessment of associated malformations. Radiology 1990;177:201-7.  Back to cited text no. 5  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Spencer R. Theoretical and analytical embryology of conjoined twins: Part I: embryogenesis. Clin Anat 2000;13:36-53.  Back to cited text no. 6  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
7.Campbel S, Theile R, Stuart G, Cheng E, Sinnott S, Pritchard G, Isles. Separation of craniopagus joined at the occiput: Case report. J Neurosurg 2002;97:983-7.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.O'Connell JE. Craniopagus twins: Surgical anatomy and embryology and their implications. J Neurology Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976;39:1-22.  Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Schindler E, Hajek P. Craniopaqus twins: neuroradiological findings. Neuroradiology 1988;30:11-6.  Back to cited text no. 9  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
Print this article  Email this article
Previous article Next article

    

 
  Search
 
   Next article
   Previous article 
   Table of Contents
  
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Article in PDF (118 KB)
    Citation Manager
    Access Statistics
    Reader Comments
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
    Introduction
    Case Report
    Discussion
    Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2774    
    Printed116    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded141    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal