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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2006  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-20

Medulloblastoma in children: Prognostic factors and predictors of outcome


Department of Neurosurgery, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences &Technology, Trivandrum, India

Correspondence Address:
Girish Menon
Department of Neurosurgery, SCTIMST, Trivandrum 695 011
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.22942

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Objective: To determine the relative contributions of clinical, radiological and histopatholgical predictors of survival in children with medulloblastoma (MB) and to compare it with their adult counterparts. Materials and Methods: Retrospective case record analyses of 79 children (<16 y) operated after Jan. 1990, who have completed at least 5 y of follow-up. The following variables were assessed by bivariate analysis: age, CT scan location of the lesion, brainstem invasion, extent of excision, histological subtype. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test, Fischers test and Student's t test. Results: Near-total to total excision could be achieved in 59 (74.6%) cases. Twenty-three patients (29.11%) required CSF diversion procedures. Histopathology revealed features of classical medulloblastoma in 63.2%, thermoplastic variant in 11% and glial differentiation in 25.3% of cases. Postoperative mutism was seen in 14 (17.72%) patients. All patients received adjuvant therapy. On follow-up, 34 patients were found to have posterior fossa recurrence and four patients were re-operated. An additional 17% of patients were found to have either spinal or supratentorial metastasis on follow-up. The overall 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 19 (24.05%). Mortality was recorded in 23 patients and nearly 29 patients who were severely disabled on follow-up were referred to terminal care centres. Conclusion: In spite of recent advances in management, children with medulloblastoma still carry a poor prognosis. We observed poor outcome in children below 7 y of age. Vermian location had a better outcome in adults but not in children. Desmoplastic variant was observed to be a significant prognostic factor in paediatric, group while brain stem invasion carried poor prognosis for both.






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